H. Terry Fortune

DRL 1N11
(215) 898-6024
(215) 898-2010

Ph.D. Florida State Universtiy - 1967
B.S. (summa cum laude) Memphis State University - 1963


  • Professor, University of Pennsylvania (1976-
  • Associate Professor, University of Pennsylvania (1972-76)
  • Assistant Professor, University of Pennsylvania (1969-72)
  • Postdoctoral Appointee, Argonne National Lab (1967-69)
Research Interests: 


  1. Structure of nuclei far from stability

“Neutron decays of 13Be to the excited 0+ state of 12Be”, Fortune and Sherr, Phys. Rev. C 82, 064302 (2010).

See also Phys. Rev. C 83, 024311 (2011).

  1. Masses of exotic nuclei

“18Na: Mass excess and low-lying states”, Fortune and Sherr, Phys. Rev. C 72, 034304 (2005) Coulomb energies in 17Ne and the gs mass of 18Na”, Fortune, Sherr, and Brown, Phys. Rev. C 73, 064310 (2006); “Two-proton decay energy and width of 19Mg(g.s)”, Fortune and  Sherr Phys. Rev. C 76, 014313 (2007);   Phys. Rev. C 83, 057301 (2011).

  1. Isospin symmetry and Coulomb energies

“Coulomb energies in18Ne”, Sherr and Fortune, Phys. Rev. C 58, 3292 (1998); “Structure of 12Be and 12O ground states”, Sherr and Fortune, Phys. Rev. C 60, 064323 (1999).

See also Eur. Phys. J. A5, 371 (1999); Phys. Lett. B503, 70 (2001); Phys. Rev. C 74, 054310 (2006); Phys. Rev. C 82, 027310 (2010); Phys. Lett. B  699, 281 (2011).

  1. Use of transfer reactions to determine widths for nuclear astrophysics

"Resonant rate for 15O (alpha,gamma)19Ne", Mao, Fortune, and Lacaze, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74,3760 (1995).

See also Phys. Rev. C 53, 1197 (1996); Phys. Rev. C 67, 064305(2003); Phys. Rev. C 68, 034317(2003); Phys. Rev. C 82, 034312 (2010).

  1. Collective states in pion double charge exchange

"Giant dipole resonances built on isobaric analog states in pion double charge exchange," S. Mordechai, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. B 60, 408 (1988); "Pion double charge exchange to the double dipole resonance,"  Mordechai, et al., Phys. Rev. Letters 61, 531 (1988).  See also Phys. Rev. C 40, 850 (1990); Phys. Rev. C 41, 202 (1990).

  1.  Mechanism of pion-induced double charge exchange

“Systematics of pion double-charge-exchange reactions on T = 0 Nuclei”, Bland, et al, Phys. Lett. B 128, 157 (1983); ”DCX to the DIAS at Tpi = 292 MeV”, Zumbro, et al, Phys. Rev. C 36, 1479 (1987).

See also Phys. Rev. C 29, 2395 (1984); Phys. Rev. C 32, 349 (1985); Phys. Rev. C 34, 1895 (1986); Phys. Rev. C 35, 1334 (1987); Nucl. Phys. A 483, 514 (1988).

  1. Core-excitation amplitudes from transfer reactions

“Direct determination of (sd)3 (1p)-2 component in 17O(gs)”. Fortune, Bishop, Medsker, and Wildenthal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 527 (1978).

See also Phys. Rev. C 18, 1563 (1978).

  1. Neutron-rich light nuclei via the (t,p) reaction

“Spectroscopy of 16C”, Fortune, et al, Phys. Lett. B 70, 408 (1977).

See also Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1236 (1978); Phys. Rev. C 18, 2727 (1978); Phys. Rev. C 28, 977 (1983); Phys. Rev. C 50, 1355 (1994).

  1. Resonances in (12C,alpha) reactions

“Resonances in 12C(12C, alpha)20Ne”, Fortune, Greenwood, Segal, and Erskine, Phys. Rev. C 15, 439 (1977).

See also Phys. Lett. B 63, 403 (1976); Phys. Rev. C 14, 1271 (1976).

  1. Nuclear coexistence and weak coupling

“Structure of 0+ states in 18O”, Fortune and Headley, Phys. Lett. B 51, 136 (1974); “Structure of low-lying positive-parity states of 18O”, Lawson, Serduke, and Fortune, Phys. Rev. C 14, 1245 (1975).

See also Nucl. Phys.A 465, 123 (1987).

  1. Multi alpha-particle clustering in nuclei

“Evidence for quartet states in 20Ne”, Middleton, Garrett, and Fortune, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 950 (1971).

See also Phys. Lett. B 52, 51 (1974).

  1. Use of mirror reactions to identify mirror states

“Study of mirror states in A = 19 with the (6Li, t) and (6Li, 3He) reactions on 16O”, Bingham, Fortune, Garrett, and Middleton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 26, 1448 (1971).

See also Phys. Rev. C 5, 682 (1971).

  1. Stripping to unbound states

“New method for distorted-wave analysis of stripping to unbound states”, C. M. Vincent and H. T. Fortune, Phys. Rev. C 2, 782 (1970).

See also Phys. Rev. 185, 1401 (1969); Phys. Rev. C 7, 865 (1973);  Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 341 (1979).

  1. Heavy ion elastic scattering

“Close similarities in the excitation functions from the elastic 16O scattering from nuclei with A near 16”, Siemssen, et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 536 (1970).

See also Phys. Rev. C 5, 1839 (1972).

  1. Using reactions of type (Heavy ion in, light ion out) to populate high angular momentum states

“Selective population of highly excited states observed in the    16O(12C,alpha) 24Mg reaction”, Middleton, Garrett, and Fortune, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 1436 (1970).

See also Phys. Lett. B 39, 339 (1972)



Selected Publications: 

93.  Coexistence and B(E2)'s in 42Ca

Nucl. Phys. A 962, 1 (2017).  Published June 2017.

New data have just appeared for Coulomb excitation of 42Ca, providing E2 transition matrix elements connecting several low-lying states. I have applied a simple two-state mixing model to the lowest two 0+,2+, and 4+ states in order to fit the experimental matrix elements. Results indicate that the 0+ and 4+ states are nearly pure, whereas the 2+ states are strongly mixed. My excited band is found to be about 3.6 times more collective than the ground band.


92.  Mixing of higher-J states in 72Ge

Phys. Rev. C 95, 044317 (2017) - Published 20 April 2017

Using published E2 matrix elements, I have determined the amount of mixing between the lowest two 2+, 4+, and 6+ states in 72Ge. I also extracted the E2 strengths connecting the unmixed states. One set of basis states is found to form an excellent K=0 rotational band, and the other is found to form a K=2 band.

91.  Isospin mixing of 2+ states in 14N

Phys. Rev. C 95, 024325 (2017) - Published 27 February 2017

I have investigated the possibility that the near vanishing of the proton strength of the 9.17-MeV state in 14N could be due to isospin mixing. If the two levels involved are at 9.17 and 8.98 MeV, the mixing intensity is 0.41(9) with a T-mixing matrix element of 94(10) keV. Some consequences of such mixing are examined.

90.  Coexistence and B(E2)'s in 98Sr

Nucl. Phys. A 957, 184 (2017).  Published January 2017. 

I have used a simple two-state model to fit E2 strengths connecting the first two 0+  states to the first two 2+  states in 98Sr. Results for mixing parameters are in excellent agreement with those from a recent analysis. Perhaps surprisingly, they are also in remarkable agreement with results from 1980, despite the wide variation reported in the intervening years.

89.  Update on matter radii of carbon nuclei

Phys. Rev. C 94, 064307 (2016) - Published 5 December 2016

New results for matter radii of C nuclei have prompted an update on the experimental and theoretical research on this topic. Newest results for 22C suggest a major change may be needed in our understanding of the separation energy of that nucleus.

88.   (sd)4 states in 12,14Be

Phys. Rev. C 94, 064308 (2016) - Published 5 December 2016

For suggested cluster states beginning at about 10 MeV in 12Be, absolute energy and relative energy spacings agree well with calculations for the 8Be×(sd)4 configuration. Comparison indicates that the proposed (8+) state at 20.9 MeV is probably 6+. A similar calculation for 14Be predicts that the lowest (sd)2 and (sd)4 states are rather close together in that nucleus.

87.  Splitting of strengths in neutron removal from 13O

J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 43 115102 (2016). Published November 2016.

Using mirror symmetry and wave functions for 12Be and 13B, I have estimated the splitting of strength expected for 0 + and 2 + final states of 12O in neutron removal from 13O. Results indicate that most of the peak observed near 2.0 MeV in that reaction corresponds to a 2 + state. About 80% of the total 2 + strength should reside in a 2 + state (or states) near 5 MeV.

86.  Masses of 17,18,19,20Mg

 Phys. Rev. C 94, 044305 (2016) - Published 6 October 2016

A previous simple parametrization of mirror energy differences in pairs of nuclei consisting of a p-shell core plus two sd-shell nucleons is applied to a series of mirrors that contain sd-shell nucleons in the core. Results for 19,20Mg agree with experiment and with a potential model. Predictions are made for 2p separation energies of 17,18Mg.

85.  Solution for Energies and Mixing of Two 0+ States in 10He

Chinese Phys. Lett. 33 092101 (2016).  published September 2016.

Using results from various reactions that populate 10He, I conclude that the ground state has E 2n = 1.07(7) MeV and the excited 0 + state is in the region of 2.1–3.1 MeV. The amount of the (sd) 2 component in the ground state is less than about 0.075.


84.  Structure of 10,11Li and the reaction 11Li(p,d)10Li

Phys. Lett. B 760, 577 (2016). Published 10 September 2016.

I examine the properties of 11Li and the low-lying resonances in 10Li, as they relate to neutron removal from 11Li. Comparison with results from a recent 11Li(p,d)  reaction strongly suggests that that experiment observed only the 2+resonance, and not the 1+.


83.  Analysis of inelastic pion scattering from the low-lying 2+ states in 14C

Phys. Rev. C 94, 024345 (2016) - Published 31 August 2016

I have analyzed data for inelastic π+ and π− scatterings to the two lowest 2+ states of 14C to determine proton and neutron matrix elements. In a two-state model, I have then derived one-body transition amplitudes for p shell and (sd)2 transitions. Data are found to be consistent with equal mixing of the 2+ states but with slightly nonstandard ratios of effective charges. Using effective charges in common usage, mixing is found to be only slightly different from equal—55% of the (sd)2 component in the lower 2+ state.

82.  Single-particle s1/2 and d5/2 states in 15N and 15O

 Phys. Rev. C 94, 024339 (2016) - Published 25 August 2016

For states in 15N and 15O that have large single-particle strengths for 2s1/2 and 1d5/2, I have computed energy differences for mirror states and widths for unbound states in 15O. I consider both T=1 and T=0 cores. Calculated and experimental energies agree well. Results indicate that actual ℓ=0 spectroscopic factors for two 3/2+ states are significantly smaller than those recently reported.

81.  Coexistence and B(E2) values in 72Ge

Phys. Rev. C 94, 024318 (2016) - Published 12 August 2016

An earlier coexistence model of Ge nuclei is applied to E2 strengths connecting low-lying 0+ and 2+ states in 72Ge. New data have smaller uncertainties and, for the first time, a value for the transition strength from the third 2+ state to the second 0+ state. This B(E2) for the third 2+ state clearly indicates that it is the one that should be included in the mixing, rather than the second 2+ state. My results confirm that the 0+ states are maximally mixed, the 2+ states are weakly mixed, and the E2 matrix element involving the lower 0+ basis state is significantly larger than the one involving the second 0+ basis state.

80.  Properties of 16C(6.11 MeV) and its mirror in 16Ne

Phys. Rev. C 94, 014305 (2016) - Published 11 July 2016

From previous data for the reaction 14C(t,p)16C, I have extracted a width of 32.6(5) keV for the strong state at Ex=6.11MeV. Here, I examine its likely Jπ and configuration. The predicted width of its mirror in 16Ne is estimated to be about 260 keV.

79.  Energies and widths in 13Be

Phys. Rev. C 93, 054327 (2016) - Published 31 May 2016

I have calculated spectroscopic factors connecting three d resonances in 13Be to the three lowest states of 12Be. Combined with single-particle widths computed in a potential model, I have estimated the widths expected for the various decays. Comparing measured and calculated widths suggests that the resonance near 1 MeV is not 5/2+ and that the one just above 2 MeV is the lowest 5/2+ resonance.

78.  Structure of 16Ne(2+, Ex=6.18 MeV)

 Eur. Phys. J. A 52, 119  (2016). Published May 2016.

For several configurations that could be candidates for the structure of a recently-discovered narrow 2+ state at an excitation energy of 6.18 MeV in 16Ne, I present expected energies and widths. None is able to account for all the details of the data.

77.  B(E2) values in neutron-excess nuclei near A=16

Phys. Rev. C 93, 044322 (2016) - Published 21 April 2016

A simple model is used to compute B(E2)'s in several nuclei that have one or two sd-shell neutrons and no sd-shell protons. The model works well for all six nuclei if I use later experimental values for 16C for which the measured B(E2) is about four to eight times earlier values.

76.  Population of bound and unbound states of 12Be in proton removal from 13B

Physics Letters B 755, 351. Published 10 April 2016.

For proton removal from 13B to bound and unbound states of 12Be, I investigate the consequences of core excitation in both nuclei, using wave functions determined previously. Conclusions are that the ground state contains most of the 0+ strength, but the 2+ strength is concentrated in the second 2+ state, which is currently unknown, but predicted near 5 MeV.

75.  Widths and structure of unbound states in 12Be

Phys. Rev. C 93, 034325 (2016) - Published 21 March 2016

I have estimated the energies of several unbound states of 12Be and their spectroscopic factors for decay to the 1/2+ ground state and 1/2− first-excited state of 11Be. These are then used to estimate the expected widths for such decays. Results for likely 3− and 4+ states are good. I find that only 0+ and/or 2+ states can account for the width recently observed for a state decaying with a centroid neutron energy of 1.24 MeV.

74.  Nature of the En = 1.24 MeV state in 12Be

Eur. Phys. J. A 52, 11 (2016).  Published  January 2016

I suggest that a new state (Phys. Rev. C 90, 024309 (2014)) observed in 12Be, with a neutron decay energy of 1243 keV, is likely to be 2+, rather than the previously suggested (2−, (1−)). Primary p-wave decay is then to the first excited state of 11Be, but a possible d-wave g.s. branch could be as large as about 10%.

73.  Width of 27P(1.19MeV) and the 26Si(p,γ) reaction rate

Phys. Rev. C 92, 025807 (2015) - Published 28 August 2015

I have used a simple potential model to calculate single-particle widths in 27P. Assuming mirror symmetry, I have combined them with the spectroscopic factor from the reaction 26Mg(d,p) to compute proton widths for the 3/2+ first-excited state. I present results for the resonance strength parameter ωγ and for the (p,γ) reaction rate for two values of the γ width and two values of the resonance energy.

72.  Energies and widths of T=1 single-particle states in 14O and 14N

 Phys. Rev. C 91, 064306 (2015) - Published 11 June 2015

I used a simple potential model to compute energies and widths of single-particle states in 14O and their corresponding T=1 states in 14N, using information for the parent states in 14C as input. Agreement is reasonable, but some discrepancies exist.

71.  Lowest (sd)2 states in odd-A light nuclei

Phys. Rev. C 91, 044321 (2015) - Published 22 April 2015

A simple two-component shell-model calculation has previously been successful in predicting the absolute energies of 0+(sd)2 states in several light nuclei. Here, I apply the same model to such states coupled to odd-A p-shell cores.

70.  Properties of 15Be(5/2+)

Phys. Rev. C 91, 034314 (2015) - Published 11 March 2015

A simple (sd)3 shell-model calculation has previously worked extremely well in predicting absolute energies of the lowest 5/2+ state in 19O,17C, and 13Be. Here, I apply the same model to 15Be. When combined with a recent experimental result, the analysis produces tight constraints on the s and d single-particle energies in 13Be.

69.  Constraints on energies of 10He(0+) and 9He(1/2+)

 Phys. Rev. C 91, 034306 (2015) - Published 3 March 2015

I have used the relationship between computed energies in 10He and single-particle energies in 9He to provide limits on the s1/2 energy. The absence of any bound states in 10He requires Es>1MeV, contradicting all the experiments that have reported an s state near threshold. The present analysis supports the view that the variation of 10He “ground-state” (g.s.) energies determined in various reactions is caused by the presence of two overlapping 0+ resonances. Results of the two simplest reactions—proton knockout and (t,p)—have been used to extract the g.s. and excited 0+ energies as a function of the mixing parameter b2 between the p-shell and the (sd)2 basis states.

68.  Structure of 11Li(g.s.) and an excited 3/2− state

Phys. Rev. C 91, 017303 (2015) - Published 12 January 2015

New measurements of reaction cross sections for scattering of 11Li from H and C have provided a value for the radius of the neutron density distribution. By using the sensitivity of calculated radii to neutron configuration, I find that the s2 fraction required to reproduce the new radius is P(s2)=0.33+0.03−0.05, in agreement with an earlier estimate of 0.33(6). Calculations of relative cross sections for the reaction 9Li(t,p) (in reverse kinematics) suggest a method to observe an expected excited 3/2− state and to independently determine P(s2).

67.  14Be(g.s.) and single-particle energies in 13Be

Phys. Rev. C 90, 064305 (2014) - Published 1 December 2014

Coupling two sd-shell neutrons to a pure p-shell 12Be ground state (g.s.), rather than to the physical g.s., removes difficulties in applying a previous simple model to 14Be. I have calculated the g.s. wave function in this simple model, and have estimated the 2s1/2 single-particle energy.

66.  Reexamining shell-model predictions for the mass of 17Na(g.s.)

Phys. Rev. C 90, 067302 (2014) - Published 1 December 2014

A new shell-model calculation for 17C provides spectroscopic factors for use in a computation of mirror energy differences between 17C and 17Na. Results are compared with previous predictions.