A closed membrane in confinement will deform when its area is larger than the area of the confining shell. Finite element simulations show that the vesicle forms a single axisymmetric invagination if the excess area is small. For higher surface area the symmetry is broken and more complicated folding patterns are found. These patterns will also depend on the container geometry and the topology of the vesicle. Even though the observed structures result from a minimal model, they could nevertheless help to identify the basic building blocks in the morphogenesis of real biological tissues and organelles such as mitochondria, the power plants of eukaryotic cells.
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